*THE PASSIVE IS FORMED WITH THE DIFFERENT TENSES OF THE VERB TO BE FOLLOWED BY A PAST PARTICIPLE
ACTIVE SUBJECT VERB OBJECT PASSIVE NEW SUBJECT PASSIVE FORM
ACTIVE SOMEONE HAS STOLEN MY CAR PASSIVE MY CAR HAS BEEN STOLEN
MAIN USES OF THE PASSIVE VOICE
a) When the person doing the action (the agent) is not known, or when it is unnecessary to mention the agent. For example: MY CAR’S BEEN STOLEN! MILK IS OFTEN SOLD IN CARTONS. b) To emphasise the action or event rather than the agent. For example: LETTERS ARE COLLECTED FROM THE BOXES, TAKEN TO THE SORTING OFFICE, SORTED AND THEN SENT TO THE CORRECT PART OF THE COUNTRY. c) To avoid using you and one when making an impersonal statement. For example: TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS IN THE MUSEUM IS FORBIDDEN. CHILDREN ARE NOT ALLOWED IN THE BAR.
d) VERBS WITH TWO OBJECTS
GIVE SEND SHOW LEND PAY PROMISE REFUSE TELL OFFER
These verbs are followed by two objects, which usually refer to a person and a thing.
She gave her sister the car. Her sister was given the car. The car was given to her sister. *Most often in such cases the person becomes the subject of the passive verb. Write passive sentences:
a) They have just sent me a whole lot of information.
b) She lent you ten thousand pounds last year.
c) They showed us all the different ways of making whisky.
e) SENTENCES WITH OBJECTS COMPLEMENTS.
CONSIDER ELECT REGARD SEE CALL MAKE
Direct object followed by an ‘object complement’ A noun or adjective which describes the object.
Queen Victoria considered him a genius. He was considered a genius (by Queen Victoria) Write passive sentences:
a) They elected him president.
b) They regarded him as an expert.
c) They saw him as a sort of clown.
d) She called him stupid.
e) He made the room beautiful.
f) SENTENCES WITH CLAUSE OBJECTS AND VERBS WITH OBJECT + INFINITIVE
We need to be sure of our facts when we say: He was a spy in the World War II .If we are not sure of our facts, we can
express caution by saying: It is said (that) he was a spy in World War II. / He was said to be a spy in World War II.
We can express caution in three ways, with:
a) It(+ passive + that-clause)
AGREE BELIEVE CONSIDER DECIDE HOPE KNOW SAY
People believed that witches communicated with the devil. It was believed that witches communicated with the devil.
(Also possible: That witches communicated with the devil was widely believed)
b) There (+passive+to be)
ALLEGE BELIEVE FEAR KNOW REPORT SAY SUPPOSE THINK
There is plenty of oil off our own coast. There is said to be plenty of oil off our own coast.
c) Subject (not it)(+passive +to-infinitive)
ALLEGE BELIEVE CONSIDER KNOW SAY
Jane knows all there is to know about chimpanzees. Jane is said to know all there is to know about chimpanzees. Write passive sentences:
a) Everybody knows that Peter has connections with drug dealers.
b) People believe that the Queen is very rich.
c) Many people say that she is the best soprano in the world.
d) Most people think that the government behaved irresponsibly.
e) Several newspapers report that Maradona is retiring next year.
f) They found that most of the pipes had rusted.
g) Many political commentators expect that the Prime Minister will call a general election.
h) The hospital reports that both mother and daughter are in good health.
i) Nobody can deny that Induraín is one of the greatest cyclists.
j) The people know that the president is very ill.
k) There are thousands of people waiting to renew their work permit. (say)
l) There is a lot of coal in the Antartic. (think)
4. VERB + PREPOSITION.
We’velistened to this CD hundreds of times. This CD has been listened to hundreds of times. Write passive sentences:
They will send for you when the boss arrives.
This is what we asked for.
She thinks highly of the new worker.
He threw away the old clothes.
COMPLETE THE CHART
Verb to be
Present simplePresent continuous ………………………………. Past simple Past continuous ……………………………….. Future simple Future perfect
A stolen car
will have been